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  • Comparison and application of different empirical correlations for estimating the hydrate safety mar

    As the oil and gas industries continue to increase their activity in deep water, gas hydrate hazards will become more serious and challenging, both at present and in the future.Accurate predictions of the hydrate-free zone and the suitable addition of salts and/or alcohols in preparing drilling fluids are particularly important both in preventing hydrate problems and decreasing the cost of drilling operations.In this paper, we compared several empirical correlations commonly used to estimate the hydrate inhibition effect of aqueous organic and electrolyte solutions using experiments with ethylene glycol (EG) as a hydrate inhibitor.The results show that the Najibi et al.correlation (for single and mixed thermodynamic inhibitors) and the Ostergaard et al.empirical correlation (for single thermodynamic inhibitors) are suitable for estimating the hydrate safety margin of oil-based drilling fluids (OBDFs) in the presence of thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors.According to the two correlations, the OBDE composed of 1.6 L vaporizing oil, 2% emulsifying agent, 1% organobentonite, 0.5% SP-1, 1% LP-1, 10% water and 40% EG, can be safely used at a water depth of up to 1900 m.However, for more accurate predictions for drilling fluids, the effects of the solid phase, especially bentonite, on hydrate inhibition need to be considered and included in the application of these two empirical correlations....

    2020-12-22 21:24:13浏览:60 oil-baseddrillingfluidgashydratesethyleneglycolinhibitionprediction

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  • 净化厂循环水系统再生水回用的腐蚀控制

    某净化厂循环水系统引入再生水后,腐蚀严重,严重影响了设备的正常使用,给净化厂的正常生产造成了一定的影响。针对此情况,对其循环水体系现况进行了详细的分析研究,发现其主要问题在于对再生回用水的不正确使用。对此开展了阻垢、缓蚀、杀菌等实验研究工作,开发出适合于该厂的循环水系统稳定运行方案,为现场应用提供了技术支持。...

    2020-11-10 09:33:08浏览:30 循环冷却水再生水阻垢缓蚀杀菌recyclecoolingwaterreclaimedscaleinhibition

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  • 补充水总铁对循环水系统缓蚀性能的影响研究

    在循环冷却水系统中,影响系统腐蚀的因素很多.通过试验证实在补充水总铁含量较高时,会影响缓蚀剂的缓蚀效果,甚至会加剧循环水对金属管材的腐蚀.将监测总铁项目增加到各类补充水的日常分析中,从循环水系统前端对总铁进行管控是处理循环水腐蚀问题的有效途径之一....

    2020-11-10 09:33:08浏览:18 总铁含量缓蚀剂补充水腐蚀速率thetotalironcontentcorrosioninhibitionmake-upwater

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  • 绿藻生物质发酵生产燃料乙醇的研究?

    主要探讨了利用绿藻作为生物质原料进行乙醇发酵的可行性及其发酵效果,考察了不同种类绿藻、硫酸浓度以及钠离子浓度对乙醇产量的影响.研究结果证明石莼葡萄糖含量丰富,作为发酵乙醇的原料是十分有潜力的.预处理过程中最适硫酸浓度为2%,并利用氢氧化钙调节pH 值为5.5时,其最大乙醇浓度可高达30 g/L,且产乙醇速率可达0.63 g/(L· h),乙醇产量为37 g/kg.在酶解存在的条件下,加大硫酸浓度水解对绿藻中葡萄糖的溶出并没有很大帮助,主要影响其它五碳糖的溶出.钠离子对发酵产乙醇过程的影响较大,钠离子浓度过高会抑制乙醇产量以及产乙醇速率;而在氯离子存在的条件下,低钠离子浓度便可对乙醇发酵产生严重抑制....

    2020-09-30 09:14:00浏览:24 绿藻酸解生物乙醇乙醇产量抑制greenalgaacidhydrolysisBioethanolyieldinhibition

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  • Inhibition and recovery of nitrification in treating real coal gasification wastewater with moving b

    Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was used to treat real coal gasification wastewater. Nitrification of the MBBR was inhibited almost completely during start-up period. Sudden increase of influent total NH3 concentration was the main factor inducing nitrification inhibition. Increasing DO concentration in the bulk liquid (from 2 to 3 mg/L) had little effect on nitrification recovery. Nitrification of the MBBR recovered partially by the addition of nitrifying sludge into the reactor and almost ceased within 5 days. Nitrification ratio of the MBBR achieved 65% within 12 days by increasing dilute ratio of the influent wastewater with tap water. The ratio of nitrification decreased to 25% when influent COD concentration increased from 650 to 1000 mg/L after nitrification recovery and recovered 70% for another 4 days....

    2020-06-12 16:19:18浏览:1399 movingbedbiofilmreactorcoalgasificationwastewaternitrificationinhibition

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