Structured modeling is the most commonly used modeling method, but it is not quite addaptive to significant changes in environmental conditions. Therefore, Decision Variables Analysis(DVA), a new modelling method is proposed to deal with linear programming modeling and changing environments. In variant linear programming , the most complicated relationships are those among decision variables. DVA classifies the decision variables into different levels using different index sets, and divides a model into different elements so that any change can only have its effect on part of the whole model. DVA takes into consideration the complicated relationships among decision variables at different levels, and can therefore sucessfully solve any modeling problem in dramatically changing environments....

Although the frequency of Intemet worm's outbreak is decreased during the past ten years,the impact of worm on people's privacy security and enterprise's efficiency is still a severe problem,especially the emergence of botnet.It is urgent to do more research about worm's propagation model and security defense.The well-known worm models,such as simple epidemic model (SEM) and two-factor model (TFM),take all the computers on the internet as the same,which is not accurate because of the existence of network address translation (NAT).In this paper,we first analyze the worm's functional structure,and then we propose a three layer worm model named three layres worm model (TLWM),which is an extension of SEM and TFM under NAT environment.We model the TLWM by using deterministic method as it is used in the TFM.The simulation results show that the number of NAT used on the Intemet has effects on worm propagation,and the more the NAT used,the slower the worm spreads.So,the extensive use of NAT on the Internet can restrain the worm spread to some extent....

On the basis of the deep geology and the geological structure of Huangtupo landslide, an ancient landslide in the reservoir of the Three Gorges, the geo-environmental model of the landslide is established to analyze quantitatively the sliding mechanism by using the discrete element method. It is concluded that interbedding structure of soft and hard formation consists of the main geological background,which induced the arching of the formation under gravity. Stability analysis of different loadings shows that the ground building weight on the middle slope may restrain the extension of shear sliding zone below, but may activate the foot area which will reduce the safety factor of the front....

Genre analysis has become one of the most important approaches to text analysis,especially in the field of English for Specific Purposes.Abstract is the essential part of the paper,which helps the readers get initial impressions.Because of its particular the usage of communication,it has its special rules and mode.The purpose of this paper was to present the 5-move model characteristic of research dissertation abstracts,and explore the linguistic characteristics of each move.The analysis started from the macrostructure,i.e from the text as a whole,towards the microstructure which included linguistic description (syntactic and lexical).The results showed that most abstracts followed 5-move model and the linguistic features of this genre....

The analytic properties of scattering amplitudes provide a meeting point for experimental and theoretical investigations of baryon resonances. Pole positions and residues allow for a parameterization of resonances in a well-defined way which relates different reactions. The recent progress made within the Jiilich model is summarized....

Based on the data envelopment analysis (DEA) theory, the optimal pathway of metabolic reaction networks in biochemical systems is studied. After calculating the mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model given by Bailey et al. twice, the decision making units (DMU) and the prediction model of DEA are constructed, where the inputs are levels of manipulated parameters (enzyme) and outputs are concentrations of metabolites. When the metabolic networks are reconstructed, the data are obtained by calculating MILP framework twice and the optimal levels of the manipulated parameter at different regular loops are predicted, thus simplifying the calculations of Bailey's....

Theoretical calculations were based on thermodynamic equilibrium in the multi-component and multi-phase system with heat and mass balance as well as the oxygen efficiency to take account for the effects of process kinetics. The variations of temperature, mass fractions of dissolved oxygen and sulfur in blister copper, partial pressures for O2, S2, SO2 in gas phase for the copper-making stage were calculated. The model predicted temperature, time of blowing as well as mass of the blister copper at end points for 6 heats showed a fairly good agreements with corresponding plant data. The calculated content of 0.065% and content of 0.87% in blister copper were both at reasonable levels. Compared with the so called Goto model, the present model has very much improved process description of copper-making stage as well as the prediction of end points for a copper converter by introducing the oxygen efficiency....

A severe typhoon Utor,occurring between July 3 and 8,2001,brought heavy rainfall,strong wind and storm surge.Utor was responsible for tremendous destruction and economic losses in Philippines,Taiwan and Guangdong.An air-sea model system(MM5 and Princeton Ocean Model(POM))was built to simulate meteorological dynamics and ocean circulation in the South China Sea(SCS).In the POM the output of MM5 was used as the input data.With an increased number of vertical levels,a high-resolution planetary boundary layer scheme and updated landuse/vegetation data,the accuracy of computing wind,temperature and other meteorological fields are improved in near surface and upper levels in MM5 simulations.The simulated trajectory and wind speed of Utor are close to the observed results.The simulated distribution of rainfall is accorded well with measured data in the Pearl River Delta(PRD)area.At different meteorological stations in Hong Kong,the wind,temperature and sea surface pressure are well simulated.The simulated ocean surface current and surface temperature fields have an obvious rightward-biased response to the typhoon Utor,and the maximum velocity and the lowest temperature region appear in the 30 km of the right side of the typhoon track.The typhoon Utor could make the water 50m under the surface ocean unwell to surface and the ocean surface temperature decrease by about 2℃....

The numerical simulation for microstructure evolution of Al-Si alloy in solidification process is carried out with phase field model. The phase field model,solution algorithm and the program of dendrite growth are introduced. The definition of initial condition,boundary condition and the stability condition of differential format are all included. The simulation results show that the evolution of dendrite morphology is as follows: the initial circle nucleus transforms to the rectangle one firstly,then its corners develop to the four trunks and from which the secondary side branches are generated and even the third side branches are produced from secondary ones. The dendrite tip radius decreases quickly at the initial stage and changes slowly at the late stage,which is mainly due to the fact that more and more side branches appear and grow up. The comparisons of dendrite morphology between simulated results and investigations by others are also presented. It is proved that the dendrite morphologies are similar in trunks and arms growth,so the developed phase field program is accurate....

How to use Simulink software in grinding system was studied. The method of designing batch grinding subsystem and the steps of building batch grinding blockset were introduced. Based on batch grinding population balance model, batch grinding was simulated with Simulink. The results show that the simulation system designed with Simulink explain reasonably the impersonal rule of batch grinding. On the basis of batch grinding simulation, the computer simulation of mineral processing system with Simulink of grinding and classification, comminution, etc, can be properly explored....

Due to the importance of detecting the matte grade in the copper flash smelting process, the mechanism model was established according to the multi-phase and multi-component mathematic model. Meanwhile this procedure was a complicated production process with characteristics of large time delay, nonlinearity and so on. A fuzzy neural network model was set up through a great deal of production data. Besides a novel constrained gradient descent algorithm used to update the parameters was put forward to improve the parameters learning efficiency. Ultimately the self-adaptive combination technology was adopted to paralleled integrate two models in order to obtain the prediction model of the matte grade. Industrial data validation shows that the intelligently integrated model is more precise than a single model. It can not only predict the matte grade exactly but also provide optimal control of the copper flash smelting process with potent guidance....

Small watersheds are the basic composition unit of the Loess Plateau in China.An accurate estimation of vegetation net primary productivity (NPP) is of great significance for eco-benefit evaluation in small watershed management in this region.Here we describe the development and testing of a vegetation-producing process model (VPP) of a small watershed in the Loess Plateau.The model couples three modules:radiation adjustment;soil hydrological processes; and vegetation carbon assimilation.Model validation indicates that the VPP model can be used to estimate the NPP of small watersheds in the region.With the VPP model,we estimated the spatial NPP distributions in the Yangou watershed for 2007.The results show that in the Yangou watershed the NPP is relatively low,averaging 168 g C/(m2·a).Trees and shrubs have a higher NPP than crops and grasses.The NPP is larger on the partly shaded and shaded slopes than on the partly sunny and sunny slopes.The NPP on the slopes increases gradually on 0-20° slopes and decreases slightly on slopes steeper than 20°.Our simulation indicates that the vegetation type is the most important factor in determining the NPP distribution in small watersheds in the Loess Plateau....

A new model for describing the compaction process of iron powder was proposed based on the continuum hypothesis and elliptical yield criterion. To simulate the densification behaviour, the constitutive model was implemented in Marc computer program. For the relationship between load and displacement, different models were compared and the influence of the parameters in the constitutive equations was determined by means of simulation and experiments. The density distribution of a balancer was measured and simulated. The results show that the parameter η adopted plays a modification role for the load-displacement curve, and compared with other models the present model fits better with the experimental data in the later stage of the compaction process mainly due to the different parameters A and B. The friction on the contact surface contributes to the inhomogeneous density distribution under large deformation of the workpiece. The comparison between the simulation and experimental data indicates that this model can be used to predict the powder compact process precisely and effectively....

An infiltration measurement device was developed to research the infiltration process of molten AZ91D magnesium alloy into the Al2O3 short fibre preform. The variation of relationship between the heights of measuring points and the time for molten alloy to reach the measuring points was illustrated. The effect of infiltration process parameters on the infiltration front was analyzed. It is found that pressure and pouring temperature are the most important factors which affect the infiltration velocity and composite quality. Furthermore, considering the influence of temperature field, an infiltration model of molten AZ91D into the short fibre preform was constructed on the basis of experimental results and Darcy's Law. The analysis shows that the results predicted by this model are consistent with the experimental results....

In spline rolling process, the contact area between roller and workpiece plays an important role in calculating rolling-force and rolling-moment. For the purpose of studying the contact area, contact state between roller and workpiece in process of spline cold rolling based upon cross rolling is analyzed. According to the suitable hypothesis, the mathematic model of roller-tooth-curve in optional position of rolling process is established. Combing the theory of conjugate curves with the theory of envelope curve, the corresponding mathematic model of workpiece-tooth-curve is established. By utilizing establishing mathematic models, the algorithm of entire contact area in rolling process is created. On the basis of the algorithm, calculation-program is compiled under MATLAB program language environment. The calculation-program actualizes quantitative analysis and quantitative calculation of contact areas. Utilizing the calculation-program, the influence of parameters on contact area is analyzed, and the tendency is consistent with the manufacturing experience. In consideration of rolling-force optimization, the primary process parameters may be selected according to results of calculation. The result of the present study may provide basis for research on rolling-force and rolling-moment....

Temperature-dependent elastic viscoplastic material model was used for the numerical simulation of the friction stir welding process. The non-elastic response of the rate-dependent material in the large deformation problems was calculated by using the closest point algorithm. The numerical results show that the shape of the equivalent plastic strain looks like onion rings and the spacing of the rings is approximately equal to the forward movement of the tool in one rotation. The equivalent plastic strain is increased with the increase of viscosity coefficient due to the increase of friction stress in the pin-plate interface. The region which is influenced by the rotating tool is decreased with the decrease of viscosity coefficient. The radial and circumferential stresses in front of the pin are greater than the ones behind the pin. This difference can be reduced with the decrease of viscosity....

Civil aircraft maintenance process simulation model is an effective method for analyzing the maintainability of a civil aircraft. First, we present the Hierarchical Colored Timed Petri Nets for maintenance process modeling of civil aircraft. Then, we expound a general method of civil aircraft maintenance activities, determine the maintenance level for decomposition, and propose the methods of describing logic of relations between the maintenance activities based on Petri Net. Finally, a time Colored Petri multi-level network modeling and simulation procedures and steps are given with the maintenance example of the landing gear burst tire of a certain type of aircraft. The feasibility of the method is proved by the example....

The activated sludge process (ASP) is the most generally applied biological wastewater treatment method. The ASP for the removal of organic carbon and nitrogen can be looked as the combination of eight processes. In order to set up an ASP model, the stoichiometric coefficients should be deduced so that the stoichiometric matrix can be presented. The important assumptions and simplifications behind the model for ASP are enumerated. Using the matrix, mass balance equation and consistent units, the stoichiometric coefficients in the eight processes are exclusively deduced one by one....

The metal spray forming process was examined using the mathematical model simulation by Baosteel's test and developed facilities. The mathematical model comprised of the probability and statistical analysis of the droplet mass behavior and predicted the shape and temperature distribution of the billet during the spray forming process....

The convection between the strip coil boundary and the surrounding medium was studied,and the math ematical model and boundary conditions for the temperature field of anisotropic strip coil was proposed,and the temperature field of strip coil were calculated by the analytic method....

The ship design process model is the basis for developing the ship collaborative design system under network environment.According to the characteristics of the ship design, a method for dividing the ship design process into three layers is pat forward, that is project layer, design task layer and design activity layer, then the formalized definitions of the ship design process model, the decomposing principles of the ship design process and the architecture of the ship collaborative design (SDPM) system are presented. This method simplifies the activity network, makes the optimization and adjustment of the design plan convenient and also makes the design process easier to control and change, at last the architecture of the ship collaborative design system is discussed....

Virtual manufacturing is fast becoming an affordable technology with wide-ranging applications in mod ern manufacturing. Its advantages over existing technology are primarily that users can visualize, feel involvement and interact with virtual representations of real world activities in real time. In this paper, a virtual cutting system isbuilt which can simulate turning process, estimate tool wear and cutting force using artificial neural network etc. Using the simulated machining environment in virtual reality (VR), the user can practise and preview the operations for possible problems that might occur during implementation. This approach enables designers to evaluate and design feasible machining processes in a consistent manner as early as possible during the development process....

To study the transport process of isopropanol aqueous solution by pervaporation, the transport model of isopropanol and that of water at 323 K in polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) membrane were obtained in this paper. Theoretical predictions agreed well with the experimental results. The interactional parameter between water and PVA membrane is less than that between isopropanol and PVA membrane, which shows that water is preferentially dissolved in PVA membrane. The plasticizing coefficient and diffusion coefficient at infinite dilution of water are larger than those of isopropanol,which shows that the dissolution and permeation in PVA membrane of water are greater than those of isopropanol. Both the interactional parameter between water and isopropanol in the membrane and that in feed rise with the increase of isopropanol content in feed, which shows that the larger isopropanol content is, the higher selectivity of the membrane is and the more remarkable separation effect of pervaporation is....

Based on mass and energy balances and theories of thermodynamics and kinetics, a dynamic model in conjunction with relative operation parameters was derived. With this model, the EAF process in later stage of scarp melting was dynamically described,including time dependent variations of bath temperature, slag quantity, compositions of steel, slag and off-gas, etc. Steelmaking process in a domestic 100 ton UHP AC EAF was chosen as a computational example, and the simulated variations of temperature of hot metal and element contents was shown consistent with the actual process measurements within average error scopes of |△T| ≤15K, |[△%C]| ≤0.036,|[△%Si]| ≤0.00027, |[△%Mn]| ≤0.002, |[△%P]| ≤0.00089 and |[△%S]| ≤0.001 respectively at the test points. The model will be extended to predict the whole production process including scrap melting procedure and evaluate its energy and material consumption, the production efficiency, etc., which will provide assistance for the improvement of EAF operation and control....

Considering the difficulty of creating water quality model for activated sludge system, a typical BP artificial neural network model has been established to simulate the operation of a waste water treatment facilities. The comparison of prediction results with the on-spot measurements shows the model, the model is accurate and this model can also be used to realize intelligentized on-line control of the wastewater processing process....