加拿大的煤矿开采 煤炭资源 •加拿大煤炭储量丰富，可采储量达66亿吨，预计未来100年的产量。•加拿大90%以上的煤矿位于西部省份，由于靠近西海岸港口，这些省份具有战略优势。•加拿大有无烟煤、烟煤、亚烟煤、褐煤和煤矿。•无烟煤主要用于住宅和商业供暖，也用于炼钢。这些煤目前都不在加拿大生产，尽管不列颠哥伦比亚省的一个新采矿项目目前正在规划阶段。•烟煤主要用于炼钢的焦炭，发电的燃料，以及制造业的热和电力应用。亚烟煤和褐煤被用来发电。 煤矿 •加拿大目前有19个煤矿，主要位于该国西部。•不列颠哥伦比亚省有5座矿山，阿尔伯塔省有9座矿山，萨斯喀彻温省有3座矿山。在新斯科舍省也有两个煤矿。•加拿大的大部分煤炭是露天开采的，无论是露天开采还是露天开采。露天开采只是对土地的临时利用，与此同时可以进行复垦开采。露天采矿，一旦坑被开采，它的回填土和表面的原生树木，灌木和草。•加拿大有很多新煤矿，目前有25个煤炭项目正在通过各种政府监管程序。 生产 •2014年，加拿大的煤炭产量为6900万吨(Mt)，其中约50%为热煤，50%为冶金煤(焦煤)。 出口市场 •加拿大2014年出口了大约3450万吨煤炭，比2013年的39.1吨减少了4.6吨。•2014年，中国出口了近350万吨动力煤。•加拿大90%的煤炭出口是炼焦煤。•加拿大是世界第三大焦煤出口国，仅次于澳大利亚和美国。国内市场 •加拿大人约9.5%的能源需求来自燃煤发电。•加拿大在2012年消耗了4000万吨煤炭，其中大部分用于燃煤发电。•一些省份严重依赖燃煤发电。例如，在阿尔伯塔省，55%的电力来自煤炭。在新斯科舍省是56%，萨斯喀彻温省是46%。•具有成本效益和可靠性的燃煤电力为阿尔伯塔省和萨斯喀彻温省带来了强大的经济优势，因为它们有丰富的本地煤炭资源。 运输 •连接铁路和港口的高效互联网络对于将加拿大的煤炭运往国外市场至关重要。•加拿大有两条国家铁路(加拿大国家铁路和加拿大太平洋铁路)运输煤炭。•海运的煤炭约80%通过位于温哥华和鲁伯特王子(Prince Rupert)的不列颠哥伦比亚省(British Columbia)港口运输。其余的则通过雷湾港运送。 经济和社会效益 •煤炭在加拿大的经济和社会福利中发挥着至关重要的作用。•由于煤炭行业，超过4.2万人直接或间接就业。这包括在矿山生产、建筑、勘探、运输和填海活动中工作的人以及向工业提供货物和服务的人。•煤炭开采是加拿大GDP的重要贡献者——2011年直接和间接影响约为52亿美元。•除了特许权使用费，2011年对政府收入的总体经济影响估计为6.98亿美元，这些钱可以用来资助公路、医院、学校和政府项目等公共基础设施，这些设施有可能丰富加拿大人的生活。•煤炭公司是好邻居。他们确保他们的业务和办公室附近的社区从社会和经济上受益。公司为当地的娱乐、青年组织和教育机构等项目提供资金支持。•煤炭公司对农村社区的经济福祉非常重要。他们提供高质量的工作机会;对市政税收基础做出贡献，并通过收购当地商品和服务来支持地区企业。•采矿业是加拿大原住民的最大雇主，与教育机构和政府合作，提供培训和就业机会。•加拿大的采矿业在复杂的监管环境中运作。•有大约35项与采矿业相关的联邦法律和法规，以及数十项省级和地方一级的法律和法规。•加拿大有很高的填海标准。例如，艾伯塔省的矿山财务安全计划，确保企业对采矿活动造成的土地破坏负有法律责任。
Coal Mining in Canada
• Canada has an abundance of coal with 6.6 billion tonnes of recoverable coal reserves and an estimate of 100 years of future production. • More than 90% of Canada’s coal deposits are located in western provinces which provide a strategic advantage because of the close proximity of west coast ports. • Canada has anthracite, bituminous, sub- bituminous, lignite and coal deposits. • Anthracite is used primarily for residential and commercial space heating and also in steel-making. None of this coal is currently being produced in Canada, although a new mining project in British Columbia is now in the planning stages. • Bituminous coal is used primarily to make coke for steel-making and as fuel for electric power generation, and heat and power applications in manufacturing. Sub-bituminous and lignite coals are used for electric power generation.
• Canada currently has 19 producing coal mines which are primarily located in the western part of the country. • British Columbia has five mines, Alberta has nine mines and Saskatchewan has three mines. There are also two coal mines in Nova Scotia. • The majority of Canada’s coal is produced by surface mining – either strip mining or open pit. Strip mining is only a temporary use of the land and reclamation can be carried out at the same time mining takes place. With open pit mining, once the pit is mined it’s backfilled with earth and resurfaced with native trees, shrubs and grasses. • Canada has a number of new coal mines on the horizon with 25 coal projects currently going through various governmental regulatory processes.
• Canadian coal production was 69 million tonnes (Mt) in 2014, split approximately 50% thermal and 50% metallurgical (coking) coal.
• Canada exported approximately 34.5 million tonnes of coal in 2014, a decrease of 4.6 Mt from 39.1 Mt in 2013. • In 2014, close to 3.5 million tonnes of thermal coal was exported. • 90% of Canada’s coal exports is coking coal. • Canada is the world’s third largest exporter of coking coal, after Australia and the United States.
• Canadians count on coal-fired electricity generation for about 9.5% of their energy needs. • Canada consumed 40 million tonnes of coal in 2012 and the majority of this consumption was used for coal-fired power generation. • Some provinces rely heavily on coal-fired electricity. In Alberta for example, 55% of its electricity generation comes from coal. In Nova Scotia it’s 56% and Saskatchewan it’s 46%. • Cost-effective and reliable coal-fired electricity contributes to a strong economic advantage for Alberta and Saskatchewan because of an abundance of locally sourced coal.
• An efficient and inter-connected network connecting rail with ports is critical to get Canadian coal to foreign markets. • Canada has two national railways (Canadian National and Canadian Pacific) which transport coal. • About 80 per cent of the coal shipped by sea goes through British Columbia ports located in Vancouver and Prince Rupert. The remainder is shipped through the Port of Thunder Bay.
Economic and Social Benefits
• Coal plays a vital role in Canada’s economic and social well-being. • Over 42,000 people are directly and indirectly employed thanks to the coal industry. This includes those who work in mine production, construction, exploration, transportation and reclamation activities as well as those who supply goods and services to the industry. • Coal mining is an important contributor to Canada’s GDP – contributing an estimated $5.2 billion in direct and indirect impacts in 2011. • In addition to royalties, the total economic impacts on government revenues in 2011 was estimated at $698 million, which was available to fund public infrastructure such as roads, hospitals, schools and government programs which have the potential to enrich the lives of Canadians. • Coal companies make good neighbors. They ensure that local communities near their operations and offices benefit socially and economically from their business. Companies offer financial support in local programs such as recreation, youth organizations and educational institutions. • Coal companies are important to the economic well-being of rural communities. They provide high quality job opportunities; contribute to the municipal tax base, and support area businesses by acquiring local goods and services. • The mining industry is the largest employer of Aboriginal people in Canada and works with educational institutions and governments to provide training and employment opportunities.
Regulatory Environment • Canada’s mining industry operates within a complex regulatory environment. • There are some 35 federal acts and regulations related to the mining industry coupled with dozens of laws and regulations at the provincial and territorial levels. • Canada has high reclamation standards. Alberta’s Mine Financial Security Program, for example, ensures that companies are legally responsible for reclaiming the land disturbed by mining activities.